How Can I Be Sure I’m Not Plagiarizing?
Why Shouldn’t I Plagiarize?
5 Rules for Citing Sources
|Rules for Citing||When to Use||When NOT to use||How to Cite|
|Direct Quotation – Requires citation no matter how large or small the quotation. Use quotation marks and use in-text citation.||
Use direct quotes when you need to:
support your argument;
present a phrase you want remembered;
provide a specific example; summarize an author’s points;
introduce another’s claim or argument.
a lot of details;
commonly known information;
long sections of text that could by summarized or more selectively quoted;
information you could probably state better in your own words.
|Put in-text citation immediately after end quotation marks.|
|Paraphrase - Restating another person's thoughts or ideas in your own words. The ideas belong to someone else. You must rewrite the original wording, change the sentence structure, and cite the source.||Use paraphrasing when you want to present an author’s idea but not his words.||
to disguise someone else’s ideas as your own;
when you can state it more clearly in your own words;
when it fits better in the flow of the paper in your own words.
|Put in-text citation at end of sentence or paragraph.|
|Summary - Looser form of paraphrasing – condensing and rearranging the ideas - needs to be cited, usually at the end of your paragraph.||Use a summary to shorten the ideas of experts or authorities – then use to support, dispute, or improve your ideas.||Avoid summarizing if it is not relevant to your own ideas or does not add interest or support to your own paper.||Put in-text citation at end of sentence or paragraph.|
|Facts, Information, and Data – For most facts, you must acknowledge the source. You do not have to cite a source for a fact that is generally known and accepted eg. George Washington was the first President of the United States.||Use facts & Information to support your arguments. If in doubt as to whether it is “common knowledge”, always cite.||Avoid using facts & information to fill up pages or if you cannot connect them to your own ideas or argument.||If not common knowledge, put in-text citation as close as possible to the information.|
|Supplementary Information – Additional information to support an argument, offer a contrasting opinion, or document resources that might be of interest to your readers.||Use as needed. To support, contrast or document.||Put in-text citation as close as possible to the information.|
Information adapted from:
Academic Integrity at Princeton “What is Plagiarism?” Retrieved from https://odoc.princeton.edu/curriculum/academic-integrity
Georgetown Academic Resource Center “Avoiding Plagiarism” Retrieved from https://guides.dml.georgetown.edu/plagiarism/avoiding
“How Not to Plagiarize” by Margaret Procter. Retrieved from Writing at the University of Toronto http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/using-sources/how-not-to-plagiarize
The Owl at Purdue “Avoiding Plagiarism” (2008) Retrieved from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/teacher_and_tutor_resources/preventing_plagiarism/avoiding_plagiarism/index.html
Virtual Salt “Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers” by R. Harris, 06/14/09. Retrieved from www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm
Avoiding Plagiarism Handout